A SSESSMENT Modern learning theory and experience with new forms of assessment suggest several characteristics assessments should have if they are to serve effectively as learning activities. Of particular interest is the need to provide opportunities for students to construct their own mathematical knowledge and the need to determine where students are in their acquisition of mathematical understanding. In both, the assessment must elicit important mathematics.
Dairy cows were introduced to by English settlers in the early s. Meat cows were introduced by Spanish settlers. Cattle were kept primarily for dairy production and were slaughtered and eaten only when they could no longer be maintained through the winter.
This pattern was long established As early as live cattle were driven to Boston, where they commanded high prices By the nineteenth century, the United States was famous for meat-eating as England had already become by the seventeenth century Chapel Hill NC] p.
Americans have no doubt always preferred beef, but what they actually ate was necessarily that which was available, and for the first three centuries of white history in America, what was most readily available was pork. Nevertheless as early asHarper's Weekly reported that the commonest meal in America, from coast to coast, was steak; and at the beginning of the Civil War, Anthony Trollope At the beginning supplying this demand presented no problem, Each settlement was capable of raising for itself as much beef as it needed But the population of the East Coast increased rapdily; its inhabitants discovered they were not quite as rich in space as they had thought; and much of the land could be better employed for other purposes than grazing.
If Americans were to eat beef in the quantities to which they wanted to become accustomed, more spacious grazing lands had to be found.
They were found, on a scale which once again seemed unlimited, in the Far West There is a story which attributes the discovery that the West was ideal for cattle raising to the mishap of a heavily loaded governmental ox train which was blocked by blizzards in Wyoming toward the end of the Civil War.
To save themselves, the drivers abandoned wagons and oxen. Returning in the spring to salvage anything that might be salvageable, they were amazed to find theri oxen not only still alive, but well fed and healthy Texas not only had food for cattle, it had the cattle, waiting to be taken, whose ancestors had been imported by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century and abandoned in Texas, where they had drown wild and become "more dangerious to footmen than the fiercest buffalo.
The first Texas herds were thus composed of wild cattle, captured at considerable risk to life and limb, which in the next generation would become domesticated as the famous Texas Longhorns.
They were very far from being the best beef critters in the world The original Spanish stock had come from dry parched country and their descendants had retained, in another dry parched country, the ability to stand up to hot Texas summers and to make do with a minimum of water Taken in hand by the Western cattlemen, the herds multiplied and prospered The legendary epoch of the cattle trails, the routes over which herds of Longhorns were driven north to the markets, dates back to before the Civil War.
These movements occurred on a prodigious scale, hardly comparable to the placid processions of fifty or a hundred head which had earlier moved north from Georgia or east from Ohio New York] p.
Until the early s Texas ranchers had held great cattle drives of hundreds of thousands of lanky longhorns, urging them along a mile Chisolm Trail from San Antonio direct to the stockyards of Abilene, at a rate of about a dozen miles a day.
From Abilene they were taken by rail to the new meat processing plants in Chicago and Kansas City. But when the Great Plains were cleared of bison and the Indians who had depended upon them, the new land was opened to range cattle.
What happened then was that the land Texans sent their cattle to the plains on the hoof to rest and fatten up before the last, easy journey to the stockyards, while new ranchers went into business on a massive scale, financed by the capital poured into the industry by American and foreign investors.
The profits were substantial In Kansas had sixteen times as many cattle as twenty years earlier. Steak housesas we Americans know them today, originated in the USA. The origin and history of Beef Stroganoff is an excellent lesson in food lore.
While food historians generally agree the dish takes its name from Count Stroganoff, a 19th century Russian noble, there are conflicting theories regarding the genesis of this "classic" dish.
Certainly, there is evidence confirming the recipe predate the good Count and his esteemed chef. USA introduction dates in print to the s. In the ss Beef Stroganoff was considered a trendy dish.I use the phrase folk religions in a similar yet different way than the term animism..
Folk religions synthesize popular beliefs and practices, frequently animistic in nature, that are developed within cultures to handle every day problems with the major world religion(s).
FOREWORD by B K S Iyengar The Hatha yoga pradipika of Svatmarama is one of the most important yoga texts, and Hans-Ulrich Rieker's translation and commentary have long been valuable to yoga students as a complement to their practice and study.
The medieval word for a Poet was a Maker, which indeed is the original meaning of a Poet. It is one of the points, more numerous than some suppose, in which Greek and medieval simplicity nearly touch.
All Tavistock and American foundation techniques have a single goalto break down the psychological strength of the individual and render him helpless to oppose the dictators of the World Order.
Any technique which helps to break down the family unit, and family inculcated principles of religion, honor, patriotism and sexual behavior, is used by the Tavistock scientists as weapons of crowd.
Mystification According to McNeil, mystification is a technique used by teachers who are not fully informed on the topic in which they are instructed to teach. Students often express mystification about what they did inadequately or what type of change would make their work stronger. Teachers can use rubrics and sample work marked according to the rubric to communicate the goals of improved mathematical explication.
they also changed their teaching. Teachers increased their use of strategies that.