Select network If you are writing an essay on motivating employees for your psychology class, you came to the right place. The following essay examines how to motivate them across different organizational contexts.
The book would become infamous for its recommendation for rulers to be ready to act in unscrupulous ways, such as resorting to deceit and cunning, political assassination, and the usage of fear as a means of keeping order. It was in this context that the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of in Paris came to be seen as a product of Machiavellianism, a view greatly influenced by the Huguenot Innocent Gentillet, who published his Discours contre Machievel inwhich was printed in ten editions in three languages over the next four years.
I can add colours to the chameleon, Change shapes with Proteus for advantages, And set the murderous Machiavel to school.
It was first published in Septembera few months after Frederick became king, and is one of many such works. Denis Diderotthe French philosopher, viewed Machiavellianism as "an abhorrent type of politics" and the "art of tyranny". Machiavellian intelligence Machiavellianism is also a term that some socialforensic and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to be unemotional, and therefore able to detach themself from conventional morality and hence to deceive and manipulate others.
In the s, Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis developed a test for measuring a person's level of Machiavellianism sometimes referred to as the Machiavelli test. People scoring high on the scale high Machs tend to endorse statements such as, "Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so," No.
Using their scale, Christie and Geis conducted multiple experimental tests that showed that the interpersonal strategies and behavior of "High Machs" and "Low Machs" differ.
More recent research on the motivations of high Machs compared to low Machs found that they gave high priority to money, powerand competition and relatively low priority to community building, self-love, and family concerns.
High Machs admitted to focusing on unmitigated achievement and winning at any cost.
However, research has firmly established that Machiavellianism is unrelated to IQ. Furthermore, studies on emotional intelligence have found that high Machiavellianism actually tends to be associated with low emotional intelligence as assessed by both performance and questionnaire measures.
Both emotional empathy and emotion recognition have been shown to have negative correlations with Machiavellianism. Additionally, research has shown that Machiavellianism is unrelated to a more advanced theory of mindthat is, the ability to anticipate what others are thinking in social situations.
If high Machs actually are skilled at manipulating others, this appears to be unrelated to any special cognitive abilities as such. Some psychologists consider Machiavellianism to be essentially a subclinical form of psychopathy,  although recent research suggests that while Machiavellianism and psychopathy overlap, they are distinct personality constructs.
Agency refers to motivation to succeed and to individuate the self, whereas communion refers to motivation to merge with others and to support group interests. Machiavellianism lies in the quadrant of the circumplex defined by high agency and low communion.
This suggests that people high in Machiavellianism do not simply wish to achieve, they wish to do so at the expense of or at least without regard to others.
Smith  in their search for explanations for the spread of observed behavior in experimental games, in particular individual choices which do not correspond to assumptions of material self-interest captured by the standard Nash equilibrium prediction.
It was found that in a trust game, those with high MACH-IV scores tended to follow homo economicus ' equilibrium strategies while those with low MACH-IV scores tended to deviate from the equilibrium, and instead made choices that reflected widely accepted moral standards and social preferences.
Dimensionality[ edit ] Although there have been myriad proposed factor structures, two dimensions emerge most consistently within factor-analytic research - differentiating Machiavellian views from tactics.
Although no research has so far identified the causal direction of the two-dimensions, it is likely that the views generate and validate the use of Machiavellian tactics.
In the workplace[ edit ] Main article: Machiavellianism in the workplace Machiavellianism in the workplace is the employment of cunning and duplicity in a business setting. It is an increasingly studied phenomenon.
The root of the concept of Machiavellianism is the book The Prince by Machiavelli which lays out advice to rulers how to govern their subjects. Machiavellianism has been studied extensively over the past 40 years as a personality characteristic that shares features with manipulative leadershipand morally bankrupt tactics.
It has in recent times been adapted and applied to the context of the workplace and organizations by many writers and academics. The Machiavellian typically only manipulates on occasions where it is necessary to achieve the required objectives.Frederick Taylor's innovations in industrial engineering, particularly in time and motion studies, paid off in dramatic improvements in productivity.
The act of writing contains its own inner tensions. Writers must abide by a host of rules that govern the mechanics and conventions of writing yet are also expected—within the constraints of those rules-- to formulate original, even creative, thoughts.
Click the above link to view Word documents for all the handouts for this chapter. Videos Group Activity: Time Riddle This is an introductory activity . Though this can sound tiring to some, once you’ve done it long enough it really becomes second nature.
Scrutinizing everything you see while out and about definitely has its benefits, especially if you have a job that requires you to put a microscope to things on a daily basis (both figuratively and literally).
In the conclusion to this series, we will lay out suggestions for how to best manage the pitfalls and benefits of the modern status system. While no business will run successfully without proper management, it is important that those employed enjoy coming to work and maintain a positive attitude while in the work place, while being productive and completing tasks with efficiency.
Motivation is what gives people a reason to perform or behave in a certain way with the desire or /5(2).